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Rolling and Heat Treatment
ArticleName Directions for increasing the competitiveness of spring hardened-tempered wire
ArticleAuthor V. A. Kharitonov, N. Yu. Smetneva, N. V. Koptseva, Yu. Yu. Efimova

Nosov Magnitogorsk State technical University (Magnitogorsk, Russia):

V. A. Kharitonov, Cand. Eng., Prof.
N. Yu. Smetneva, Postgraduate Student, e-mail:
N. V. Koptseva, Dr. Eng., Prof.
Yu. Yu. Efimova, Cand. Eng., Associate Professor


Data on manufacture of hardened-tempered spring wire are given. These products are used for manufacture of critical types of springs (for example, valve springs for automobile engines, suspension springs, etc.). Currently, hardened-tempered wire is especially in demand by Russian enterprises. In this regard, Russia has begun the production of wire with high strength, elastic limit and ensuring greater cyclic durability of springs, as part of the import substitution program and in accordance with EN 10270-2: 2012. Stricter technical requirements of this standard (compared to GOST 1071– 81) made it necessary to study the influence of plastic deformation conditions and hardening and tempering modes on the final properties of the wire. This is especially necessary to ensure a high level of relative contraction of area, which characterizes the structural homogeneity of the metal. The routes of drawing and quenching in oil with subsequent tempering of wire with a diameter of 3.7 mm from carbon and alloy steels are considered. The article presents an assessment of the operating modes of cold wire drawing according to the values of the hydrostatic stress, Δ-parameter and the tension zone, the level of normal pressure on the wire surface in the die and the drawing force; wire drawing; assessment of mechanical properties; quenching and tempering of the obtained samples in 12 modes in laboratory conditions, determination of mechanical characteristics, microstructure of heat-treated wire. Evaluation of hydrostatic stress, normal pressure and drawing force was carried out according to the results of computer simulation of wire drawing in the DEFORM program. Determination of the Δ-parameter and stretch zone size was carried out analytically. Studies have shown that, along with the steel grade and heat treatment modes, the wire drawing route has a great infl uence on properties of the wire and costs of its production. On the basis of the data obtained, an analysis was carried out and rational modes of wiredrawing were determined.

keywords Wire, spring wire, drawing, drawing route, hardening, tempering, heat treatment, stress state

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