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Iron and Steel Making
ArticleName Status of secondary metallurgy and present trends
ArticleAuthor R. Fandrich, B. Kleimt, H. Liebig, Th. Pieper, F. Treppschuh, W. Urban.

R. Fandrich, Dr.Eng., Manager, Steel Institute VDEh; B. Kleimt, Head of the Department of automation of technological processes in steel production, BFI, VDEh; H. Liebig, Chairman "The converter production” VDEh, Head of steel-smelting manufacture, ThyssenKrupp Steel Europe AG; Th. Pieper,  Head of the smelting and furnace charge department, Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH, Witten; F. Treppschuh, GMH Engineering GmbH, Georgsmarienhütte; W. Urban, Eng., Head of steel-smelting manufacture, Krupp Mannesmann GmbH, Germany;


Since the 1950s, a huge consolidation has taken place within the European steel industry. Today, under increasing efficiency and flexibility of the steel plants also in mass production, more and more sophisticated steel grades are requested. The product portfolio of the plants, which in the end means the market, decides on the aggregates needed for secondary treatment and on the layout of the steel works. This overview outlines the specific characteristics of modern secondary metallurgy for heating, vacuum degassing, efficient vacuum production and measures to ensure steel cleanness and castability. Furthermore it sketches present trends in application and development. Typical secondary metallurgy for oxygen steelmaking route, for electric steelmaking route are presented. Typical quality mix for the both a.m. steelmaking technologies is shown and compared. Flexibility of treatment of the secondary metallurgical process routes are displayed and contents of alloying agents due to treatment in secondary metallurgy is analyzed. In this connection, achievable contents after secondary metallurgical treatment is considered for the period between 1960 and 2010. Chemical heating in VD with aluminium addition is examined as prospective technology, accompanying with range of application for RH and VD plants and information about start-up of vacuum treatment plants (both RH and VD types) worldwide since 1990 till 2010. Structure of model-based on-line process control for RH degasser with oxygen top lance, continuous temperature control for the ladle furnace and monitoring of stirring processes are studied. Environmental aspects are investigated on the example of integrated heat recovery from EAF off-gas for secondary metallurgy.

keywords Secondary metallurgy, basis oxygen steelmaking, electric steelmaking, alloying agents, vacuum degassing, RH treatment, ladle furnaces, stirring, heat recovery

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