Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2021 →  #1 →  Back

Powder Metallurgy
ArticleName Kinetics of synthesizing process for obtaining iron nanopowder by chemical-metallurgical method under isothermal conditions
DOI 10.17580/chm.2021.01.11
ArticleAuthor Tien Hiep Nguyen, Van Minh Nguyen

Le Quy Don Technical University (Hanoi, Vietnam)

Tien Hiep Nguyen, Lecturer, E-mail:


Institute of Technology (Hanoi, Vietnam)

Van Minh Nguyen, Cand. Eng., E-mail:


In this work the kinetics of synthesizing process of metallic iron nanopowder by hydrogen reduction from α-FeOOH hydroxide under isothermal conditions were studied. α-FeOOH nanopowder was prepared in advance by chemical deposition from aqueous solutions of iron nitrate Fe(NO3)3 (10 wt. %) and alkali NaOH (10 wt. %) at room temperature, pH = 11, under the condition of continuous stirring. The hydrogen reduction process of α-FeOOH nanopowder under isothermal conditions was carried out in a tube furnace in the temperature range from 390 to 470 °C. The study of the crystal structure and composition of the powders was performed by X-ray phase analysis. The specific surface area S of the samples was measured using BET method by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The average particle size D of powders was determined via the measured S value. The size characteristics and morphology of the particles were investigated by transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The calculation of the kinetic parameters of the hydrogen reduction process of α-FeOOH under isothermal conditions was carried out by the Gray-Weddington model and Arrhenius equation. It is shown that the rate constant of reduction at 470 °C is approximately 2.2 times higher than in the case at 390 °C. The effective activation energy of synthesizing process of iron nanopowder by hydrogen reduction from α-FeOOH was ~38 kJ/mol, which indicates a mixed reaction mode. In this case, the kinetics overall process is limited by both the kinetics of the chemical reaction and the kinetics of diffusion, respectively, an expedient way to accelerate the process by increasing the temperature or eliminate the diffusion layer of the reduction product by intensive mixing. It is show that Fe nanoparticles obtained by hydrogen reduction of its hydroxide at 410 °C, corresponding to the maximum specific rate of the reduction process, are mainly irregular in shape, evenly distributed, the size of which ranges from several dozens to 100 nm with an average value of 75 nm.

keywords Kinetics, iron nanopowder, chemical-metallurgy method, isothermal conditions, reduction degree, rate constant, activation energy

1. Bhushan B. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. 4th edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, 2017. 1500 p.
2. Nguyen V. M., Karunakaran G., Nguyen T. H., Kolesnikov E. A., Alymov M. I. Enhancement of structural and mechanical properties of Fe+0.5 % C steel powder alloy via incorporation of Ni and Co nanoparticles. Letters on Materials. 2020. Vol. 10, Iss. 2. pp. 174–178.
3. Tavallalia V., Kianib M., Hojatia S. Iron nano-complexes and iron chelate improve biological activities of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2019. Vol. 144. pp. 445–454.
4. Nagi Ł., Płużek A. Electrical Strength of Natural Esters Doped by Iron Nanopowder in a Hydrophobic Carbon Shell. Materials. 2020. Vol. 13. Iss. 8. 1956.
5. Kovalenko L. V., Folmanis G. E., Vavilov N. S., Adymov М. I. Low-temperature hydrogen reduction of nanocrystalline iron-containing raw materials. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov. 2000. No. 4. pp. 79–81.
6. Alymov M. I., Seplyarskii B. S., Rubtsov N. M., Vadchenko S. G., Kochetkov R. А. et al. Macrokinetic investigation of the interaction mechanism of the pyrophoric iron nanopowder compacts with air. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2020. Vol 92, Iss. 8. pp. 1321–1328.
7. Alymov M. I., Ankudinov А. B., Tikhomirov S. А., Evstratov Е. V., Arsenkin А. М. Influence of sintering modes on mechanical properties of compacts made of iron powders of different dispersion. Perspektivnye materialy. 2006. No. 2. pp. 87–92.
8. Alymov M. I., Averin S. I., Evstratov Е. V. Thermal stability of nanocrystalline iron. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov. 2004. No. 4. pp. 90–91.
9. Konyukhov Yu. V. Application of iron nanopowders for wastewater treatment from lead, copper and zinc ions. Stal. 2018. No. 2. pp. 62–68.
10. Crane R. A., Scott T. Nanoscale zero-valent iron: future prospects for an emerging water treatment technology. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012. No. 211. pp. 112–125.
11. Huber D. L. Synthesis, properties, and applications of iron nanoparticles. Small. 2005. No. 1. pp. 482–501.
12. Yan W., Lien H. L., Koel B. E. Iron nanoparticles for environmental clean-up: recent developments and future outlook. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts. 2013. No. 15. pp. 63–77.
13. Gobinath R., Datta S. P., Singh R. D., Manasa V. Effect of mode and source of iron nano particles on the biological properties of the calcareous soil. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2020. Vol. 8, Iss. 4. pp. 3334–3337.
14. Klinger А., Altendorfer А., Bettinger D., Hughes G. D., Al-Husseini А. А. et. al. The new system for control and improvement of technological process at DRI units. Chernye Metally. 2017. No. 10. pp. 19–27.
15. Koshanova A., Partizan G., Мansurov B., Мedyanova B., Mansurova M. et al. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures on iron nanopowders. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2016. Vol. 741.
16. Nguyen T. Н., Konyukhov Yu. V., Nguyen V. М., Levina V. V., Karpenkov D. Yu. Magnetic properties of Fe, Co, Ni nanopowders obtained by the chemical-metallurgical method. Proceedings of the XXII International conference on permanent magnets. 2019. pp. 104–105.
17. Kargin D. B., Mukhambetov D. G., Konyukhov Yu. V., Altynov Е. А., Aznabakiev К. R. Magnetic properties of iron nanopowders and iron oxides obtained from mill scale. Proceedings of the XXII International conference on permanent magnets. 2019. pp. 106–107.
18. Konyukhov Yu. V., Nguyen V. М., Ryzhonkov D. I. Kinetic regularities of processes of hydrogen reduction of α-Fe2O3 nanopowder during energy-mechanical processing in an electromagnetic field. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov. 2018. No. 1. pp. 66–74.
19. Nguyen T. H., Nguyen V. М. Influence of surfactants on the dispersion of iron, cobalt and nickel nanopowders. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Poroshkovaya metallurgiya i funktsionalnye pokrytiya. 2020. No. 1. pp. 22–28.
20. Ryzhonkov D. I., Konyukhov Y. V., Nguyen V. M. Kinetic regularities and mechanisms of hydrogen reduction of nanosized oxide materials in thin layers. Nanotechnologies in Russia. 2017. Vol. 12. No. 11-12. pp. 620–626.
21. Ryzhonkov D. I., Arsentev P. P., Yakovlev V. V. Theory of metallurgical processes. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1989. 392 p.
22. Nguyen V. M., Konyukhov Yu. V., Ryzhonkov D. I., Kotov S. I. Features of obtaining nanodispersed and micron nickel powders by hydrogen reduction in a vortex magnetic field. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Poroshkovaya metallurgiya i funktsionalnye pokrytiya. 2016. No. 1. pp. 4–11.
23. Kolpakova N. А., Romanenko S. V., Kolpakov V. А. Collection of tasks in chemical kinetics. Tomsk: Izdatelstvo TPU, 2008. 280 p.
24. Usenko А. Е., Pankov V. V., Sobeskiy А. S. Solid-phase synthesis of magnetite from hematite in a reducing atmosphere of ethyl alcohol vapor. Vestnik BGU. Seriya 2. Khimiya. Biologiya. Geografiya. 2013. No. 3. pp. 16–21.
25. Grineva О. V., Kantaev I. S., Kisilev А. D., Kraydenko R. I. Chlorammonium separation of magnesium oxide and silicon obtained by the method of silicon dioxide magnetothermy. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov. 2011. Vol. 319. No. 3. pp. 66–69.
26. Schmalzried H. Chemical Kinetics of Solids. Weinheim: VCH, 1995. 433 p.
27. Chen H., Zheng Z., Shi W. Investigation on the kinetics of Iron ore fines reduction by CO in a micro-fluidized bed. Procedia Engineering. 2015. Vol. 102. pp. 1726–1735.
28. Ryzhonkov D. I., Kostyrev S. B. Kinetics of oxides reduction processes under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Izvestiya vuzov. Chernaya metallurgiya. 1992. No. 3. pp. 6–8.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy