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ArticleName Features of annealing of alloy steels with mixed structure
DOI 10.17580/chm.2021.04.07
ArticleAuthor V. A. Lutsenko, T. N. Golubenko, O. V. Lutsenko

Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy named after Z. I. Nekrasov (Dnepr, Ukraine):

V. A. Lutsenko, Dr. Eng., Leading Researcher, e-mail:
T. N. Golubenko, Cand. Eng., Senior Researcher
O. V. Lutsenko, Cand. Eng., Researcher


It is necessary to obtain initial rolled product with a structure which has high ductility and low hardness for further mechanical processing of alloyed rolled metal products into the ready product. In this case the enterprises carry out a special softening heat treatment to increase the ductility of the metal. The treatment represents the annealing at subcritical temperatures (А1 — 25…40 °С) with long holding. During annealing the structural transformations are running and the formed structure has a granular morphology. To obtain spheroidizing in the steels with a mixed structure (contains at the same time pearlite, bainite or martensite) usually requires a lot of time and energy, because the structural transformations during heat treatment are running with different intensities in different phases. Established by study, that in the steels with a mixed structure during annealing the structural transformations begin from the thermodynamically less stable structures. So, to reduce the mode of the softening heat treatment (annealing) of the investigated steels it is rationally to change the cooling conditions after rolling and to provide the increased quantity of bainite and martensite. For medium-carbon steels alloyed by chromium, molybdenum and vanadium and also for low-carbon steel alloyed by manganese and silicon, an increase of the cooling rate after hot rolling by ~1.5 times allows to obtain more sensitive structure to annealing. So, the structure consists at least 80 % of the bainite, ~15 % of the ferrite and 5 % of the pearlite for chromium-molybdenum steel. The base of the structure contains bainite (~90 %), martensite (~5 %) and ferrite (up to 5 %) for chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steel. For low-carbon silicon-manganese steel an increase of the cooling rate leads to the formation of the structure which contains at least 35 % of the bainite-martensite, ~60 % of the ferrite and 5 % of the pearlite. The structural transformations proceed at the low temperatures and require a shorter duration of the holding in the obtained structures during further annealing. Receiving such structure after rolling, allows to speed up intermediate softening heat treatment, thereby reducing energy costs, and provides high ductility of steel before mechanical processing.

keywords Medium-carbon steel, low-carbon steel, alloying, rolled products, structural transformation, annealing, spheroidizing

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