Journals →  Chernye Metally →  2021 →  #9 →  Back

Metal science and Metallography
ArticleName Influence of microheterogeneity destruction on microstructure and crystal structure of Fe-12% Mn-1%C alloy ingots
DOI 10.17580/chm.2021.09.10
ArticleAuthor N. I. Sinitsyn, O. A. Chikova, D. S. Chezganov, E. A. Pashnina

Ural Federal University (Ekaterinburg, Russia)1 ; Ural State Pedagogical University (Ekaterinburg, Russia)2:
O. A. Chikova1,2, Dr. Phys.-Math., Prof., Dept. of Physics, Institute of Fundamental Education, e-mail:


Ural Federal University (Ekaterinburg, Russia):

N. I. Sinitsin, Graduate student of the Dept. of Physics of the Institute of Fundamental Education, e-mail:
D. S. Chezganov, PhD, Senior Researcher, Dept. for Optoelectronics and Semiconductor Engineering, Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, e-mail:
E. A. Pashnina, Laboratory Researcher, Dept. of Optoelectronics and Semiconductor Technology, e-mail:


The results of comparative analysis of microstructure, crystal structure and mechanical properties in submicrovolumes of Fe-12%(wt.)Mn-1%(wt.)C alloys crystallized from the melt in different structural state: with destruction and without destruction of microheterogeneity are presented. Earlier, the authors found that overheating of the Fe-12%(wt.)Mn-1%(wt.)C melt to a temperature of 1700 °C leads to destruction of microheterogeneity, which changes the crystallization conditions of the ingot. Microheterogeneity means the presence in the melt of dispersed particles enriched in iron, which are suspended in an environment of a different composition and separated from it by a clear interfacial surface. The study of alloys was performed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion analysis (EDS), the method of backscattered electron diffraction (EBSD) and nanoindentation. It was found that the destruction of the microheterogeneity of Fe-12%(wt.)Mn-1%(wt.)C melts during cooling and subsequent crystallization led to an increase in the dendritic parameter from 85 to 120 μm with increasing length of secondary branches of dendrites, crystallite size and small angle borders. Regardless of the crystallization conditions, manganese-enriched liquation layers with a thickness of L ~ 70–120 μm with a manganese content of 20 % (wt.) are formed on the surface of austenite dendrites, which leads to deformation inhomogeneity of the ingot. Based on the nanoindentation data, it is calculated that the adhesion of the manganese-enriched segregation layer to the body of austenite dendrites (Kint) for the sample crystallized after destruction of the microheterogeneous state increased by 1.2 times. The fracture energy along the boundary layer and the austenite dendrite body (Gc) also increased by 1.4 times. Average hardness values of the Young’s modulus of austenite dendrites did not change after the destruction of microheterogeneity. The mechanical characteristics of the ingot crystallized after the destruction of the microheterogeneity of the Fe-12%(wt.)Mn-1%(wt.)C melt under impact load generally improved.

The equipment of the Ural Center for Shared Use "Modern nanotechnology" UrFU was used.

The study was performed with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the research project No. 19-33-90198.

keywords Fe-Mn-C alloys, crystallization conditions, microstructure, EDS analysis, crystal structure, EBSD analysis, nanohardness, Young’s modulus

1. Davydov N. G. High manganese steel. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1979. 176 p.
2. Volynova Т. F. High manganese steels and alloys. Moscow: Metallurgiya, 1988. 341 p.
3. Volkov V. N., Dibrov А. B., Andronov p. p. Influence of 110G13L high-manganese steel structure on magnetism and mechanical properties of castings. Vestnik VKGTU. 2005. No. 1. pp. 8–14.
4. Sinitskiy Е. V., Nefedyev А. А., Akhmetova А. А., Ovchinnikova М. V., Khrenov I. B. et. al. Review of research results aimed at improving the properties of high manganese steel castings. Liteynoe proizvodstvo. 2016. Vol. 19, No. 2. pp. 45–57.
5. Kveglis L. I., Noskov F. М., Kazantsev V. V. et. al. Iron-manganese-carbon alloys with anomalous crystal lattice volume. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya Fizicheskaya. 2008. Vol. 72, No. 8. pp. 1235–1237.
6. Stepanova N. N., Rodionov D. p., Turkhan Yu. E., Sazonova V. A., Khlystov E. N. Phase stability of nickel-base superalloys solidified after a high-temperature treatment of the melt. Physics of Metals and Metallography. 2003. Vol. 95. No. 6. pp. 602–609.
7. Yang M., Pan J., Liu X., Dong M., Xu S. et al. Effects of melt overheating on undercooling degree, glass forming ability and crystallization behavior of Nd9Fe70Ti4C2B15 permanent magnetic alloy. Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society. 2016. Vol. 34. No. 3. pp. 273–281.
8. Yin F. S., Sun X. F., Li J. G., Guan H. R., Hu Z. Q. Effects of melt treatment on the cast structure of M963 superalloy. Scripta Materialia. 2003. Vol. 48. No. 4. pp. 425–429.
9. Mostert R. J., Van Rooyen G. T. Quantitative assessment of the harden ability increase resulting from a super harden ability treatment. Metallurgical transactions. A. 1984. Vol. 15 A. No. 12. pp. 2185–2191.
10. Wang C., Zhang J., Liu L., Fu H. Effect of melt superheating treatment on directional solidification interface morphology of multi-component alloy. Journal of Materials Science and Technology. 2011. Vol. 27. No. 7. pp. 668–672.
11. Wang L., Bo L., Zuo M., Zhao D. Effect of melt superheating treatment on solidification behavior of uniform Al10Bi54Sn36 monotectic alloy. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2018. Vol. 272. pp. 885–891.
12. Jia p., Gao Z., Hu X., Liu Y., Zhang J. et al. Correlation of composition, cooling rate and superheating temperature with solidification behaviors and microstructures of Al – Bi – Sn ribbons. Materials Research Express. 2019. Vol. 6. No. 6. 066539 p.
13. Su H., Wang H., Zhang J., Guo M., Liu L. et al. Influence of melt superheating treatment on solidification characteristics and rupture life of a third-generation Ni-based single-crystal superalloy. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions: B. 2018. Vol. 49. No. 4. pp. 1537–1546.
14. Calvo-Dahlborg M., Popel p. S., Kramer M. J., Besser M., Morris J. R. et al. Superheat-dependent microstructure of molten Al - Si alloys of different compositions studied by small angle neutron scattering. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2013. Vol. 550. pp. 9–22.
15. Popel p. S. Metastable microheterogeneity of melts in systems with eutectic and monothectic and its influence on the alloy structure after solidification. Rasplavy. 2005. No. 1. pp. 22–48.
16. He Y.-X., Li J.-S., Wang J., Beaugnon E. Liquid-liquid structure transition in metallic melt and its impact on solidification: A. Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 2020. Vol. 30. pp. 2293–2310.
17. Kuritaa R., Tanakaa H. Drastic enhancement of crystal nucleation in a molecular liquid by its liquid-liquid transition. Applied Physical Sciences. 2019. Vol. 116. No. 50. pp. 24949–24955.
18. Chikova О. А., Sinitsyn N. I., Vyukhin V. V. Viscosity of Fe - Mn - C melts. Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii. 2021. Vol. 95. No. 2. pp. 177–182.
19. Sinitsyn N. I., Chikova О. А., Vyukhin V. V. Specific electrical resistance of Fe - Mn - C melts. Neorganicheskie materialy. 2021. Vol. 57. No. 1. pp. 89–97.
20. GOST 13610–79. Iron carbonyl for radiotechnical uses. Specification. Introduced: 01.01.1980. Moscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1979.
21. GOST 4755–91. Ferromanganese. Specification and conditions for delivery. Introduced: 01.01.1997. Moscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 1991.
22. GOST R.748–2011. Metallic materials. Instrumented indentation test for hardness and materials parameters. Part 1. Test method. Introduced: 01.05.2013. Moscow: Izdatelstvo standartov, 2011.
23. Chikova О. А., Sinitsyn N. I., Vyukhin V. V. Parameters of microheterogeneous structure of liquid 110G13L steel. Zhurnal fizicheskoy khimii. 2019. Vol. 93. No. 8. pp. 1138–1146.
24. Chikova О., Sinitsin N., Vyukhin V., Chezganov D. S. Microheterogeneity and crystallization conditions of Fe – Mn melts. Journal of Crystal Growth. 2019. Vol. 527. pp. 125239.
25. Sinitsyn N. I., Chikova О. А., Chezganov D. S. Effect of destruction of microheterogeneity on microstructure and crystal structure of 110G13L steel ingots (Hadfield steel). Chernye Metally. 2020. No. 1. pp. 36–42.
26. Oliver W. C., Pharr G. M. Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented indentation: Advances in understanding and refinements to methodology. Journal of Materials Research. 2004. Vol. 19. No. 1. pp. 3–20.
27. Zhang C., Zhou H., Liu L. Laminar Fe-based amorphous composite coatings with enhanced process and microstructure evolution. Solid State Phenomena. 2011. Vol. 176. pp. 29–34.
28. Watanabe T. Grain boundary design and control for high temperature materials. Materials Science and Engineering: A. 1993. Vol. 166. No. 1–2. pp. 11–28.
29. Lin P., Palumbo G., Erb U., Aust K. T. Influence of grain boundary character distribution on sensitization and intergranular corrosion of alloy 600. Scripta Metallurgica et Materialia. 1995. Vol. 33. No. 9. pp. 1387–1392.
30. Bennett B. W., Pickering H. W. Effect of grain boundary structure on sensitization and corrosion of stainless steel. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions: A. 1991. Vol. 18. No. 6. pp. 1117–1124.

Language of full-text russian
Full content Buy