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Continuous Casting
ArticleName Improvement of the secondary cooling mode for continuous casting of round billets at Ural Steel JSC
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2021.02.03
ArticleAuthor A. N. Shapovalov, R. R. Dema, R. N. Amirov, O. R. Latypov

National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Novotroitsk Branch, Novotroitsk, Russia:

A. N. Shapovalov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., Deputy Director on Innovations and Development, e-mail:


Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia:
R. R. Dema, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof., e-mail:
R. N. Amirov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof.
O. R. Latypov, Engineer of Scientific and Innovation Center, e-mail:


Formation of hot cracks on continuously cast round billets is the frequent problem in metallurgical production. The article presents the results of a study of the macrostructure, surface quality and technology of continuous casting of round billets with a diameter of 455 mm, produced at the bloom caster of Ural Steel JSC. The main defects of such billets are identified as surface cracks of “combined” type, namely, transverse cracks (the share among the billets with defects is 9.1%), cracks of the mesh form (the share among the billets with defects is 8.3%). The main reasons for the unsatisfactory quality of the ingot are determined: increased overheating of metal in the tundish, which can be partially compensated by reduction of the casting speed, and intensive cooling of billet surface in the first segments of secondary cooling, which increase thermal stresses in metal with consequent heating of surface layers. It was decided that the most effective way to minimize billet defects is to improve the secondary cooling technology in compliance with the regulated casting temperature and speed procedure. Thermal calculations of billet solidification are conducted. It was revealed that overcooling of billet surface occurs in the first segments of secondary cooling under the existing secondary cooling modes and temperature and speed modes of casting, which leads to additional thermal and phase stresses. In the third segment of the secondary cooling zone, heating of the billet surface is observed due to the heat of the central part. Rational flow rates of cooling agent for the secondary cooling segments of the bloom continuous casting machine are proposed. They include expansion of the active section of secondary cooling with a reduction of cooling agent consumption in the first segments will reduce the thermal cycling processes in the hardened crust and minimize the likelihood of cracking.

The work was conducted under financial support of the RF Ministry of Science and High Education (project No. FZRU-2020-0011).

keywords Continuous casting, round billet, casting parameters, secondary cooling zone, railway wheel steel

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