Journals →  CIS Iron and Steel Review →  2021 →  #2 →  Back

Surface Processing and Coating Application
ArticleName Structural variations on the surface of metallic products at laser marking
DOI 10.17580/cisisr.2021.02.18
ArticleAuthor D. A. Konchus, E. I. Pryakhin, A. V. Sivenkov

St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg, Russia1 ; ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia2:

D. A. Konchus, Post-graduate, Engineer1, 2


St. Petersburg Mining University, St. Petersburg, Russia:
E. I. Pryakhin, Dr. Eng., Prof., Head of Dept. of Material Science and Technology of Artefacts, e-mail:

A. V. Sivenkov, Cand. Eng., Associate Prof.


Laser marking of products and details is used more and more wide in different production areas, because it has undisputable advantages in comparison with other marking methods. Action of laser beam on the surface of marking product is the principal feature of laser marking. It is accompanied with local heating of this surface and its partial melting together with material evaporation from the surface contact point. Influence of laser impulse action on efficiency of marking on the surface of machine-building details is examined in this work. The samples of 08Kh18N10 steel were used as material. Marking was conducted by the system “MiniMarker 2-20A4”, QR code was used as a marker. The marking parameters were optimized via the method of experimental design. The optimal marking procedure for getting maximal contrast of QR code was calculated and experimentally confirmed. Steel surface roughness was analyzed using profilograms. Contrasting effect and roughness of code were determined and relationship between these parameters was revealed. Contrast effect of marking increases with elevation of roughness. However, roughness has less input in increase of contrast effect comparing with colour hue of the surface of an information block and substrate. The link between surface roughness and contrast effect of marking is shown. Possibility of contrast effect assessment of QR code using profilometer is suggested.

The reported study was financially supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, research agreement No. 075-11-2019-066 of 22.11.2019, project title “Development of high-tech production of equipment and technologies for laser coding of transported goods and their optical identification for the implementation in modern material flow management systems” (within the framework of decree of the Government of the Russian Federation, No. 218 of 09.04.2010).

keywords Laser marking, experimental design, QR code, surface properties, contrast effect, roughness, profilometer

1. Ignatov A. G. Laser technologies: tasks and solutions. RITM Mashinostroenie. 2018. No. 6. pp. 30–33.
2. Yurevich V. I. Optics of laser technological assemblies: motion to perfectness. RITM Mashinostroenie. 2019. No. 3. pp. 14-19.
3. Wang G., Wang H., Zhang X., Li Y. Research on the Trajectory Control Method for Laser Marking. Key Engineering Materials. 2013. Vol. 579-580 KEM. pp. 614–617. DOI: 10.4028/
4. Larionova E. V., Ganzulenko O. Yu., Petkova A. P. Marking technology for serial products from metallic and polymer materials via impulse laser emission. Scientific week of St. Petersburg Polytechnic University: Collection of scientific works. 2014. pp. 178–181.
5. Maksarov V. V., Leonidov P. V. Simulation and management of dynamic properties in technological systems. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2014. Vol. 209. pp. 71–77.
6. Khalimonenko A. D., Pompeev K. P., Timofeev D. Yu. Dimensional analysis of the manufacturing processes of axisymmetric parts. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019. Iss. 1. Vol. 1. pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/560/1/012144.
7. Vasilyev O. S., Gornyi S. G. Technology of surface microstructures creation on sheet materials using fiber laser. Metalloobrabotka. 2016. No. 3 (93). pp. 20–25.
8. Petkova A. P., Ganzulenko O. Yu. Selection of steels composition in order to obtain the images with complete colour gamma on the surface of products during impulse laser emission. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2014. Vol. 209. pp. 216–219.
9. Larionova E. V., Khromova E. I. Features of transformation of graphic objects during preparation of patterns for laser treatment. Zapiski Gornogo instituta. 2014. Vol. 209. pp. 225–228.
10. Antonov D. N., Burtsev A. A., Butkovskiy O. Ya. Metal surface painting under the effect of impulse laser emission. Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki. 2014. Vol. 84. Iss. 10. pp. 83–86.
11. Odintsova G. V., Veiko V. P., Gornyi S. G., Lyong V., Moskvin M. K., Romanov V. V., Shchedrina N. N., Lutoshina D. S., Antipenkova D. A., Kutepova M. S. Fotonika. 2018. Vol. 12. No. 6 (74). pp. 568–575. DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.2018.12.6.568.575.
12. Sprovieri J. Part marking options. Assembly. 2014. Vol. 57 (8). pp. 1–7.
13. Chirkova O. S., Konchus D. A., Sivenkov A. V. Influence of laser marking on the properties of 08Kh18N10 steel surface. Metalloobrabotka. 2018. No. 4 (106). pp. 21–27.
14. Bolobov V. I., Shneerson Ya. M., Lapin A. Yu. et al. (2013) Behavior of chromium-nickel alloys, during the process of low-temperature autoclave oxidation of refractory sulfide gold-containing raw materials. Tsvetnye metally. 2013. No. 2. pp. 76–81.
15. Odintsova G., Andreeva Y., Salminen A., Roozbahani H., Lan Cuong V., Yatsuk R., Golubeva V., Romanov V., Veiko V. Investigation of production related impact on the optical properties of color laser marking. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2019. Vol. 274. No. 12. 116263. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2019.116263.
16. Konchus D. A., Sivenkov A. V. A surface structure formation of stainless steel using a laser. Materials Science Forum. 2020. Vol. 1022 MSF. pp. 112–118. DOI: 10.4028/
17. Makhov V. E., Sytko I. I. The measuring accuracy study of the light mark coordinates of laser modules. E3S Web of Conferences. 2020. No. 164. DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/202016408015.
18. Efimov A. E., Maksarov V. V., Timofeev D. Y. Modeling dynamic processes at stage of formation of parts previously subjected to high-energy laser effects. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2018. Iss. 2. Vol. 327. pp. 1–7. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/327/2/022026.
19. Gospodarikov A. P., Vykhodtsev Ya. N., Zatsepin M. A. Mathematical modeling of seismic explosion waves impact on rock mass with a working. Journal of Mining Institute. 2017. Vol. 226. pp. 405–411. DOI: 10.25515/pmi.2017.4.405.
20. Schipachev A. M. The choice of an optimal technological process for mechanical treatment of machine components based on structural models. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2019. Vol. 378. Iss. 1. pp.1–7. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/378/1/012070.
21. Odintsova G. V. Study and development of the technology of colour laser marking of metals via the method of local oxidation. Dissertation of Cand. Eng. ITMO University. St. Petersburg. 2014. 116 p.
22. Veiko V. P., Gornyi S. G., Odintsova G. V. Patrov M. I., Yudin K. V. Forming of multi-colour image on metal surface during its laser oxidation. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Priborostroenie. 2011. Vol. 54. No. 2. pp. 47–52.
23. Bavykin O. B., Vyacheslavova O. F. Forming of the minimal surface roughness value for machine components on the base of selection of optimal procedures for dimensional electrochemical treatment. Izvestiya MGTU “MAMI”. 2010. No. 2 (10). pp. 103–108.
24. Liang J. Y., Li D. G. Research on the Speed Optimization of Laser Marking. Advanced Materials Research. 2012. Vol. 571 AMR. pp. 411–415. DOI: 10.4028/
25. Vereshchagin M. N., Tselueva S. N., Tseluev M. Yu. Modification of surface layers of metallic components via impulse laser treatment. Lityo i Metallurgiya. 2020. No. 1. pp. 99–109. DOI: 10.21122/1683-6065-2020-1-99-109.
26. Ganzulenko O. Y., Petkova A. P. Simulation and approbation of the marking laser process on metal materials. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2021. Iss. 1. Vol. 1753. pp. 1–6. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1753/1/012016.
27. Shannon G., Hypsh S. Femtosecond lasers improve processing of metal, plastic parts. Assembly. 2015. Vol. 58 (10). pp. 1–5.
28. Jin Rui Li, Ai Qun Wang, Jian Mei Li, Yu Song Wu. An adaptive image binarization method for laser direct marking data matrix symbols on metal surface. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013. Vol. 401-403. pp. 1319-1323. DOI: 10.4028/
29. Camillo J. Lasers for marking parts: When the application calls for a high volume of parts to be permanently marked, a laser-based system is the best choice. Assembly. 2016. Vol. 59 (8). pp. 1–4.

Full content Structural variations on the surface of metallic products at laser marking