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Preparation of Raw Materials
ArticleName Regularities of drying hot briquetted iron
DOI 10.17580/chm.2023.04.01
ArticleAuthor I. S. Vokhmyakova, I. S. Bersenev, O. G. Sivkov, A. A. Stepanova

TOREKS Research and Production Innovative Enterprise, Ekaterinburg, Russia:

I. S. Vokhmyakova, Cand. Eng., Head of Metallization and Advanced Technologies Group
I. S. Bersenev, Cand. Eng., Head of the Scientific and Analytical Department, e-mail:

Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia:

O. G. Sivkov, Postgraduate Student
A. A. Stepanova, Postgraduate Student


Hot-briquetted iron (HBI) is a product with a low carbon footprint, therefore its use in metallurgy is expected to increase. The use of HBI in steelmaking as part of a solid feed places limitations on its moisture content, both when used in an electric arc furnace and when it is loaded into a converter. Depending on the production conditions, storage and transportation, HBI can have a moisture content in the range of 1 to 5.5 %. Moisture content of more than 1.5 % creates a hazardous condition when feeding HBI into a steelmaking unit. In addition, drying of HBI can be an effective way of reducing its secondary oxidation and improving its transport properties. An understanding of the HBI drying kinetics will therefore make it possible to reasonably formulate requirements for its handling in metallurgical plants and, if necessary, define drying conditions. The main purpose of the paper is to investigate the HBI drying process and to define the rational conditions for this process in the industry. Physical modelling was adopted as the research methodology. The research revealed that HBI drying is possible both with the use of a drying unit and by evaporation of moisture in natural conditions. The rate of forced drying is 2 orders of magnitude higher. The optimum drying conditions have also been determined: heat medium temperature of 170–180 °C; drying time: 30 minutes for each 1% moisture; the heat medium flow rate for drying shall be 413 m3/t; the natural gas flow rate for drying shall be 2.92 m3/t. The implementation of this technical solution is possible both for enterprises producing HBI and for direct consumers – steel producers. Design and development work is currently underway to implement this technology.

keywords Moisture, drying, drying unit, metal feed, hot-briquetted iron, moisture, heat medium, physical simulation, drying rate, carbon footprint

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