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ArticleName Creating masking patterns in thin nano-sized metal films
DOI 10.17580/tsm.2024.04.04
ArticleAuthor Tupik V. A., Margolin V. I., Kostrin D. K., Farmakovsky B. V.

Saint Petersburg State Electrotechnical University LETI, Saint Petersburg, Russia

V. A. Tupik, Professor, Vice-Rector for Research, Head of the Department of Radio Microelectronic and Radio Equipment Technology, Doctor of Technical Sciences
V. I. Margolin, Professor of the Department of Radio Microelectronic and Radio Equipment Technology, Academician of Prokhorov Academy of Engineering Sciences, Doctor of Technical Sciences, e-mail:

D. K. Kostrin, Associate Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Electronic Instruments and Devices, Doctor of Technical Sciences


National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Prometey Central Scientific Research Institute of Structural Materials named after I. V. Gorynin, Saint Petersburg, Russia
B. V. Farmakovsky, Associate Professor, Scientific Secretary, Candidate of Technical Sciences


The study considers the issues related to group methods for creating a protective mask on a substrate in the processes of precision high-resolution projection electron lithography using binary flows of emitted electrons from different sections of the cathode mask. This technology makes it possible to produce a protective structured mask either on the entire surface of the substrate or on a significant part of it. Technological features have been developed for creating masking patterns (topologies) using electron-ion lithography methods in thin nano-sized structured films to stop the emission of electrons from areas with a low coefficient of secondary ion-electron emission. To ensure that the electron flow is binary in density, it is necessary to implement secondary ion-electron emission from the cathode surface with the maximum possible difference. This requirement can be met through the use of materials with different coefficients of secondary ion-electron emission. It is advisable to bombard the surface of a substrate with such structure using ions drawn out from the region of a glowing gas discharge burning in the area of the cathode region filled with neutral or inert gas. The discharge is ignited by applying a potential to an additional electrode, which is electrically connected to the anode. Technological parameters (gas pressure, additional electrode potential, dimensions of structural elements and their configuration) are most often determined empirically. Gas ions drawn from plasma under the influence of potential cross the boundary of the cathode region, accelerate and bombard the cathode. Due to differences in emission coefficients in different areas of the cathode surface, the flows of electrons emitted from the surface of the substrate have different density values. In addition to the main functions of removing the charge that appears in the resist when irradiated with electrons, the metal sublayer on the substrate has the characteristic that the emission coefficient of the metal film is minimal, but it is not zero, and it generates an electron flow, although it is weak. A substance with zero emissivity is not known yet, and it is necessary to exclude these electrons. For this purpose, in a vacuum chamber at a certain distance from the substrate and the process chamber, determined experimentally, there is a metal mesh transparent to electrons, connected to an additional power source. Such system makes it possible to cut off stray electrons from a region with a low emission coefficient.

The study is recommended for publishing by the Organizing Committee of the International Conference “Nanophysics and Nanomaterials” (22–23 November 2023, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Mining University).

keywords Metal nanofilms, copper, secondary ion-electron emission, electron lithography, binary cathode-mask, glow gas discharge

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