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ArticleName Geothermal resources: Basic concepts and recent development trends
DOI 10.17580/gzh.2024.06.05
ArticleAuthor Shulyupin A. N.

Institute of Mining, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khabarovsk, Russia

A. N. Shulyupin, Director, Doctor of Engineering Sciences,


The shortcomings of the interpretations of basic concepts in the domestic practice of development of geothermal resources are highlighted. Based on the analysis of the conceptual apparatus of mining sciences and classical thermophysics, geothermal resources are defined as a geothermal energy that can be extracted for effective use at the existing level of technology. Correct definitions of geothermal energy, geothermal fields and geothermal technologies are also proposed. It is shown that in the classification of georesources according to M. I. Agoshkov, geothermal resources can be classified as both the special fifth group and the first group (mineral deposits), taking into account the required presence of carriers of geothermal energy, which can be media in various physical states, and the presence of solid carriers is mandatory. The possibility of considering geothermal technologies as a branch of geotechnology is substantiated. The presence of both renewable and non-renewable types geothermal resources is noticed. Taking into account the main global trends in the use of geothermal resources, two most actively developing trends are identified: extraction of energy from shallow levels at a low but relatively stable temperature, using heat pumps and borehole (ground) heat exchangers; creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems involving multidisciplinary collaborative research teams. It is emphasized that domestic R&D lags significantly behind the world level in both trends mentioned above.

keywords Geothermal resources, geothermal energy, mineral resource, geothermal field, geothermal technologies, heat pump, borehole heat exchanger, enhanced geothermal systems

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